|In Situ AFM Investigations and Fracture Mechanics Modeling of Slow Fracture Propagation in Oxide and Polymer Glasses. |
Auteur(s): Ciccotti Matteo, George M.
Chapître d'ouvrage: Handbook Of Materials Modeling, vol. Volume 2 p.1-37 (2018)
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Fracture propagation is inherently a multiscale problem, involving the coupling of many length scales from sample dimension to molecular level. Fracture mechanics provides a valuable link between the macroscopic scale of the structural loading of the samples and the scale of the process zone for brittle materials. Modeling the toughness of materials requires yet an investigation at scales smaller than this process zone, which is nanometric in oxide glasses and micrometric in polymer glasses.We present here the important insights that have been obtained through an in situ experimental investigation of the strain fields in the micrometric neighborhood of a propagating crack. We show the richness of atomic force microscopy combined with digital image correlation although it limits the observations to the external surface of the sample and to very slow crack propagation (below nm/s). For oxide glasses, this novel technique provided enlightening information on the nanoscale mechanisms of stress corrosion during subcritical crack propagation (Ciccotti, J Phys D Appl Phys 42:214006, 2009; Pallares et al., Corros Rev 33(6):501–514, 2015), including the relevance of crack tip plasticity (Han et al., EPL 89:66003, 2010), stress-induced ion exchange processes (Célarié et al., J Non-Cryst Solids 353:51–68, 2007), and capillary condensation in the crack tip cavity (Grimaldi et al., Phys Rev Lett 100:165505, 2008; Pallares et al., J Am Ceram Soc 94:2613–2618, 2011). An extension of this technique has recently been developed for glassy polymers (George et al., J Mech Phys Solids 112:109–125, 2018), leading to novel insights on the transition between crazing and shear yielding mechanisms and to promising new ways to link the toughness properties to the time-dependent large strain material properties of these nominally brittle materials.